Nanjing

Nanjing Location: 32 degrees 03” North 118 degrees 46” East

The name nan, south and jing, capital had been one of China’s capital cities for six dynasties in her history with the Republic Of China’s having it be its capitol as well. Legend has it Fu Chai, who was Lord of Wu established Yecheng in (495 B.C.E.). The Kingdom of Yue defeated Wu to develop its city just outside the Zhonghua Gate. The Chu Kingdom usurped Yue to build its city Jinling Yi. This city has seen itself destroyed and rebuilt numerous times throughout history, only to become more glorious than its former self.

Nanjing was granted its first title of capital when Sun Quan of the Wu Kingdom relocated his capital to Jinye. The invasion of the Wu, five Hu, Tribes, forced the royal family across the river to establish Jiankiang. It remained its capital until the Sui Dynasty during its reunification of China reduced it to a small town. Under the Song Dynasty Jinkiang’s textile industry flourished despite losing its capital status to Hangzhou, while the Northern Song’s capital was Bianjing (today’s Kaifeng). After the Yuan Dynasty moved its capital to Dadu (today’s Beijing), when in 1368 Zhu Yuan Zhang known as the Hongwu Emperor besieged it and moved the capital back to Nanjing for its duration with a mandate from heaven to govern. The third Ming Emperor Zhu Di in 1421 once more had the capitol moved back to Beijing.

As the over 2,000 years of feudalism with the collapse of the Qing Dynasty in (1910) and the rise of the Kuomintang with Dr. Sun Yat Sen as China’s first democratic elected leader, the capitol was once again moved back to Nanjing. This new government could not hold the country together as warlords gained the upper hand and caused much strife amongst the Chinese masses. As China divided between Koumintang and Communist, the stranglehold of the warlords diminished, but a new threat was Japan as WW II progressed, China’s capitol was re-located to Chunking (Chongqing) and Nanjing experienced the massacre of over 300,000 of its people. At the Rape of Nanjing Museum today you can see the furniture used by the Chinese to surrender the city to Japanese occupation forces, who were forced to use the same seats when returning the city to Chinese authorities.

Nanjing has had a reputation for textile’s and shipbuilding construction in times past and after the PLA entered in 1949 the city it quickly developed into a heavy industrial manufacturing hub of petro-chemical and steel state owned enterprises. The Nanjing River Bridge built in 1968 was the first Chinese engineered and built bridge allowing Nanjing’s newer industries of computer, telecommunications and service oriented products to overtake the heavy manufacturing sector and have now on average two new foreign companies adding branch offices there today.

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